Whatever you are, be a good one

Ask me anything   Im a 21 year old pediatric nurse student from Hungary. Im currently enroled in nursing school, studying pediatric nursing. I started this blog so I can share my journey through school and everything else thats on my mind. :) Who knows where this trip is gonna get me, but for now nursing school it is...hope you enjoy! And feel free to ask me anything! :)

neuromorphogenesis:

Beyond Salty and Sweet: A Budding Club of Tastes

Sweet, salty, sour and bitter — every schoolchild knows these are the building blocks of taste. Our delight in every scrumptious bonbon, every sizzling hot dog, derives in part from the tongue’s ability to recognize and signal just four types of taste.

But are there really just four? Over the last decade, research challenging the notion has been piling up. Today, savory, also called umami, is widely recognized as a basic taste, the fifth. And now other candidates, perhaps as many as 10 or 20, are jockeying for entry into this exclusive club.

“What started off as a challenge to the pantheon of basic tastes has now opened up, so that the whole question is whether taste is even limited to a very small number of primaries,” said Richard D. Mattes, a professor of nutrition science at Purdue University.

Taste plays an intrinsic role as a chemical-sensing system for helping us find what is nutritious (stimulatory) and as a defense against what is poison (aversive). When we put food in our mouths, chemicals slip over taste buds planted into the tongue and palate. As they respond, we are thrilled or repulsed by what we’re eating.

But the body’s reaction may not always be a conscious one. In the late 1980s, in a windowless laboratory at Brooklyn College, the psychologist Anthony Sclafani was investigating the attractive power of sweets. His lab rats loved Polycose, a maltodextrin powder, even preferring it to sugar.

That was puzzling for two reasons: Maltodextrin is rarely found in plants that rats might feed on naturally, and when human subjects tried it, the stuff had no obvious taste.

More than a decade later, a team of exercise scientists discovered that maltodextrin improved athletic performance — even when the tasteless additive was swished around in the mouth and spit back out. Our tongues report nothing; our brains, it seems, sense the incoming energy.

“Maybe people have a taste for Polycose,” Dr. Sclafani said. “They just don’t recognize it consciously, which is quite an intriguing possibility.”

Dr. Sclafani and others are finding evidence that taste receptors on the tongue are also present throughout the intestine, perhaps serving as a kind of unconscious guide to our behavior. These receptors influence the release of hormones that help regulate food intake, and may offer new targets for diabetes treatments, Dr. Sclafani said.

Many tastes are consciously recognized, however, and they are distinguished by having dedicated sets of receptor cells. Fifteen years ago, molecular biologists began figuring out which of these cells in the mouth elicit bitter and sweet tastes.

By “knocking out” the genes that encode for sweet receptors, they produced mice that appeared less likely to lap from sweet-tasting bottles. Eventually, the putative receptors for salty and sour also were identified.

In 2002, though, as taste receptors were identified, the evidence largely confirmed the existence of one that scientist had been arguing about for years: savory.

Umami is subtle, but it is generally described as the rich, meaty taste associated with chicken broth, cured meats, fish, cheeses, mushrooms, cooked tomatoes and seaweed. Some experts believe it may have evolved as an imperfect surrogate for detecting protein.

Since then, researchers have proposed new receptor cells on the tongue for detecting calcium, water and carbonation. The growing list of putative tastes now includes soapiness, lysine, electric, alkaline, hydroxide and metallic.

“The taste field has been absolutely revolutionized,” said Michael Tordoff, a biologist at the Monell Chemical Senses Center. “We’ve made more progress in the last 15 years than in the previous 100.”

One candidate for the next basic taste appears to have emerged as the front-runner: fattiness. The idea has been around for a while, and many scientists thought it was not a specific taste, more like a texture or an aroma.

But researchers recently identified two taste receptors for unsaturated fats on the tongue. And fat evokes a physiological response, Dr. Mattes has found that blood levels of fat rise when we put dietary fat in our mouths, even without swallowing or digesting it.

Hours after a meal, the taste of fatty acids alone can elevate triglyceride levels, even when the nose is plugged. But fat, like umami, does not have a clear, perceptible sensation, and it is hard to distinguish a texture from a taste.

Dr. Mattes says that fat may have a texture that we like (rich and gooey) and a taste that we don’t (rancid).

If so, the taste may serve as part of our sensory alert system. When food spoils, he notes, it often contains high levels of fatty acids, and the taste of them may be “a warning signal.”

Although there is still no consensus beyond sweet, salty, sour, bitter and savory, the research makes clear there is more to taste than a handful of discrete sensations on the tongue. Before long, scientists may have to give up altogether on the idea that there are just a few basic tastes.

“If you’re talking three, four, five, six, you can still call it a pretty exclusive club,” Dr. Mattes said. “If you start getting beyond that, is the concept really useful?”

(via fuckyeahnarcotics)

— 13 hours ago with 149 notes
radiologysigns:

70yo woman with numbness in her hands. What’s your diagnosis? 

ANSWER: http://goo.gl/TzH3Au

radiologysigns:

70yo woman with numbness in her hands. What’s your diagnosis?

ANSWER: http://goo.gl/TzH3Au

(via fuckyeahnarcotics)

— 13 hours ago with 68 notes
usmle1mikmonics:

diseasesinthreewords:
Posttranslational. The defective protein (a transmembrane conductance regulator) gets translated by mRNA and ribosomes. But the regular modifications that happen after translation fail (folding and glicosilation). Phenilalaline is the aminoacid deleted at position 508. Chromo 7 = Cystic 7ibrosis (turn F around) AR
Staph aureus. Sure, Pseudomonas is the more famous of the bacteria causing infections in CF patients. But it only leads the number of cases after age 10, before then, S. aureus is king.
Malabsorption. Very common to see malnutrition and poor growth and development. Hypoproteinemia and fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies are also classical.

cYSTIC FIBROSIS

N-acetylcysteine (cleaves disulfide bonds in mucus)  + antipseudomonal prophylaxis (tobramycin/azithromycin) 

Bronchiectasis, meconium ileus, nasal polyps, failure to thrive, \
Cystic fibrosis: presenting signs CF PANCREAS:
Chronic cough and wheezing
Failure to thrive
Pancreatic insufficiency (symptoms of malabsorption like steatorrhea)
Alkalosis and hypotonic dehydration
Neonatal intestinal obstruction (meconium ileus)/ Nasal polyps
Clubbing of fingers/ Chest radiograph with characteristic changes
Rectal prolapse
Electrolyte elevation in sweat, salty skin
Absence or congenital atresia of vas deferens

Sputum with Staph or Pseudomonas (mucoid)
“CF PANCREAS”
 Chronic respiratory diseases occur*
 Failure to thrive, poor weight gain
 Pancreatic exocrine and endocrine insufficiency, Pulmozyme as treatment
 Autosomal recessive inheritance, metabolic Alkalosis
 Neonatal intestinal obstruction, meconium ileus, intussusception, volvulus
 Clubbing of fingers, Cholestasis, biliary Cirrhosis, …**
 Rectal prolapse
 Electrolyte excess in sweat like sweat Na+ and Cl-
 Azoospermia and infertility
 Staph aureus and pSeudomonas in sputum, Salty sweat

usmle1mikmonics:

diseasesinthreewords:

  1. Posttranslational. The defective protein (a transmembrane conductance regulator) gets translated by mRNA and ribosomes. But the regular modifications that happen after translation fail (folding and glicosilation). Phenilalaline is the aminoacid deleted at position 508. Chromo 7 = Cystic 7ibrosis (turn F around) AR
  2. Staph aureus. Sure, Pseudomonas is the more famous of the bacteria causing infections in CF patients. But it only leads the number of cases after age 10, before then, S. aureus is king.
  3. Malabsorption. Very common to see malnutrition and poor growth and development. Hypoproteinemia and fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies are also classical.
  4. cYSTIC FIBROSISimage

  5. N-acetylcysteine (cleaves disulfide bonds in mucus)  + antipseudomonal prophylaxis (tobramycin/azithromycin) 

Bronchiectasis, meconium ileus, nasal polyps, failure to thrive, \

Cystic fibrosis: presenting signs CF PANCREAS:

Chronic cough and wheezing

Failure to thrive

Pancreatic insufficiency (symptoms of malabsorption like steatorrhea)

Alkalosis and hypotonic dehydration

Neonatal intestinal obstruction (meconium ileus)/ Nasal polyps

Clubbing of fingers/ Chest radiograph with characteristic changes

Rectal prolapse

Electrolyte elevation in sweat, salty skin

Absence or congenital atresia of vas deferens

Sputum with Staph or Pseudomonas (mucoid)

CF PANCREAS

  •  Chronic respiratory diseases occur*
  •  Failure to thrive, poor weight gain
  •  Pancreatic exocrine and endocrine insufficiency, Pulmozyme as treatment
  •  Autosomal recessive inheritance, metabolic Alkalosis
  •  Neonatal intestinal obstruction, meconium ileus, intussusception, volvulus
  •  Clubbing of fingers, Cholestasis, biliary Cirrhosis, …**
  •  Rectal prolapse
  •  Electrolyte excess in sweat like sweat Na+ and Cl-
  •  Azoospermia and infertility
  •  Staph aureus and pSeudomonas in sputum, Salty sweat

(via medicalexamination)

— 13 hours ago with 31 notes
fuckyeahnarcotics:

Ovarian serous cystadenoma weighing approximately 8 kgs.

fuckyeahnarcotics:

Ovarian serous cystadenoma weighing approximately 8 kgs.

— 1 day ago with 25 notes
#me#selfie#photo#iphone#blackandwhzte#retrica#summer#sunshine#tumblr

#me#selfie#photo#iphone#blackandwhzte#retrica#summer#sunshine#tumblr

— 2 days ago with 3 notes
cluelessmedic:

blue-lights-and-tea:

Yes we all get a bit confused with this! So a useful way to remember.

I’m AB+…lucky me, unlucky everyone else!

cluelessmedic:

blue-lights-and-tea:

Yes we all get a bit confused with this! So a useful way to remember.

I’m AB+…lucky me, unlucky everyone else!

— 3 days ago with 368 notes

biomedicalephemera:

Our Three (Brain) Mothers

Protecting our brain and central nervous system are the meninges, derived from the Greek term for “membrane”. You may have heard of meningitis - this is when the innermost layer of the meninges swells, often due to infection, and can cause nerve or brain damage, and sometimes death.

There are three meningeal layers: the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater. In Latin, “mater” means “mother”. The term comes from the enveloping nature of these membranes, but we later learned how apt it was, because of how protective and essential the meningeal layers are.

——————————————————-

  • The dura mater is the outermost and toughest membrane. Its name means “tough mother”.

The dura is most important for keeping cerebrospinal fluid where it belongs, and for allowing the safe transport of blood to and from the brain. This layer is also water-tight - if it weren’t, our cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) would leak out, and our central nervous system would have no cushion! Its leathery qualities mean that even when the skull is broken, more often than not, the dura (and the brain it encases) is not punctured.

  • The arachnoid mater is the middle membrane. Its name means "spider-like mother", because of its web-like nature.

The arachnoid is attached directly to the deep side of the dura, and has small protrusions into the sinuses within the dura, which allows for CSF to return to the bloodstream and not become stagnant. It also has very fine, web-like projections downward, which attach to the pia mater. However, it doesn’t contact the pia mater in the same way as the dura: the CSF flows between the two meningeal layers, in the subarachnoid space. The major superficial blood vessels are on top of the arachnoid, and below the dura.

  • Pia mater is the innermost membrane, which follows the folds (sulci) of the brain and spinal cord most closely. Its name means “tender mother”.

The pia is what makes sure the CSF stays between the meninges, and doesn’t just get absorbed into the brain or spinal cord. It also allows for new CSF from the ventricles to be shunted into the subarachnoid space, and provides pathways for blood vessels to nourish the brain. While the pia mater is very thin, it is water-tight, just like the dura mater. The pia is also the primary blood-brain barrier, making sure that no plasma proteins or organic molecules penetrate into the CSF. 

Because of this barrier, medications which need to reach the brain or meninges must be administered directly into the CSF.

Images:
Anatomy: Practical and Surgical. Henry Gray, 1909.

(via medicalexamination)

— 3 days ago with 678 notes
sh-tmypartnersays:

thealmost-do-ctor:

fuckyeahnarcotics:

A 25yo woman presented to emergency room after accidentally swallowing a spoon, she had no abdominal pain, fever, vomiting, dysphagia, voice change, cough, or difficulty breathing; the patient was previously healthy and her past medical history was insignificant, general and abdominal examination was unremarkable, there was no abnormal finding in the laboratory tests; an urgent plain abdominal radiograph revealed a metallic foreign body in the lower mid-abdomen, inspection and removal was attempted by flexible gastroscopy, however, several attempts to remove the spoon failed because the patient could not tolerate the resultant nausea when the spoon was pulled to the cardia; she had to be taken to the operating room for an exploratory laparotomy, laparotomy demonstrated no free pus and fluid within the peritoneal cavity, after surgery, the patient was well and was discharged home on postoperative day

I just hate it when I swallow spoons too…

Sorry I’m not sorry… THE FUCK YOU DOING SWALLOWING SPOONS

sh-tmypartnersays:

thealmost-do-ctor:

fuckyeahnarcotics:

A 25yo woman presented to emergency room after accidentally swallowing a spoon, she had no abdominal pain, fever, vomiting, dysphagia, voice change, cough, or difficulty breathing; the patient was previously healthy and her past medical history was insignificant, general and abdominal examination was unremarkable, there was no abnormal finding in the laboratory tests; an urgent plain abdominal radiograph revealed a metallic foreign body in the lower mid-abdomen, inspection and removal was attempted by flexible gastroscopy, however, several attempts to remove the spoon failed because the patient could not tolerate the resultant nausea when the spoon was pulled to the cardia; she had to be taken to the operating room for an exploratory laparotomy, laparotomy demonstrated no free pus and fluid within the peritoneal cavity, after surgery, the patient was well and was discharged home on postoperative day

I just hate it when I swallow spoons too…

Sorry I’m not sorry… THE FUCK YOU DOING SWALLOWING SPOONS

(via medicalexamination)

— 3 days ago with 182 notes
stunningpicture:

A nurse is looking for a vein on the hand of a premature baby.

stunningpicture:

A nurse is looking for a vein on the hand of a premature baby.

(via heartandsoulmidwifery)

— 3 days ago with 4344 notes